In contrast with clinical tools, one relatively inexpensive type of body fat meter uses the principle of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in order to determine an individual's body fat percentage. Genomics and bioinformatics tools to study browning. When leptin levels drop, the body interprets this as a loss of energy, and hunger increases. These globules are … Moreover, increased MAT in obesity further suggests a similarity to white fat depots.[36]. A type of connective tissue that contains stored cellular fat. It was discovered that many of the pathways upregulated in WAT after cold exposure are also highly expressed in BAT, such as oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism. Dictionary entry overview: What does adipose tissue mean? Leptin, however, plays a different role in diet-induced obesity in rodents and humans. Brown adipose tissue is found in almost all mammals. However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. The inguinal depots enclose the inguinal group of lymph nodes. [19][20] When women reach menopause and the estrogen produced by the ovaries declines, fat migrates from the buttocks, hips and thighs to the waist;[21] later fat is stored in the abdomen. The synonyms have been arranged depending on the number of charachters so that they're easy to find. [16] Several studies have suggested that visceral fat can be predicted from simple anthropometric measures,[17] and predicts mortality more accurately than body mass index or waist circumference. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Morphology of three different classes of adipocytes. There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. Adipose refers to tissue made up of mainly fat cells such as the yellow layer of fat beneath the skin. Net nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) efflux from adipose tissue increased steadily from … The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol, which also acts as a chemical uncoupler similarly to UCP1, was used for weight loss in the 1930s. The expansion of adipose tissue during the development of obesity is often accompanied by adipose tissue dysfunction, which in turn contributes to metabolic and endocrine derangements. [44] Studies of female monkeys at Wake Forest University (2009) discovered that individuals suffering from higher stress have higher levels of visceral fat in their bodies. A body fat meter is a widely available tool used to measure the percentage of fat in the human body. Due to the complex nature of adipose tissue and a growing list of browning regulatory molecules, great potential exists for the use of bioinformatics tools to improve study within this field. This tool has enabled examination of epigenetic regulation of browning and helps elucidate the mechanisms by which protein-DNA interactions stimulate the differentiation of beige adipocytes. The familiar type, white adipose tissue, is the body's warehouse, storing excess energy. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Definition of Adipose Tissue Deposition in the Titi Tudorancea Encyclopedia. [55] In contrast, UCP1 is inhibited by ATP, ADP, and GTP.[56]. [11], An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or "belly fat", in which the abdomen protrudes excessively. revealed that when the animals are re-exposed to a cold environment, the same adipocytes will adopt a beige phenotype, suggesting that beige adipocytes are retained. Brown fat, or brown adipose tissue (BAT), stores energy in a smaller space than white fat. technical. A study in mice demonstrated that cold-induced browning can be completely reversed in 21 days, with measurable decreases in UCP1 seen within a 24-hour period. n. A type of connective tissue that contains stored cellular fat. composed of animal fat; "adipose tissue constitutes the fat of meat" Thanks for visiting The Crossword Solver. Adipose tissue, which is in part made up of adipose cells, acts as a fuel reserve and helps conserve the heat of the body. RNA-Seq has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression profiles and to identify potential therapeutic molecules that may induce the beige phenotype. [61] It is increased in BAT during cold exposure and is thought to aid in resistance to diet-induced obesity[71] FGF21 may also be secreted in response to exercise and a low protein diet, although the latter has not been thoroughly investigated. Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes,[12] insulin resistance,[13] inflammatory diseases,[14] and other obesity-related diseases. A type of connective tissue containing many cells specialized for storing fat. When energy demand increases, such as during intense and prolonged physical activity, triacylglycerol hydrolysis occurs and fatty acidsare released into the blood. In biology, adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. [75] The most significantly up- and downregulated genes were then identified and used for analysis of differentially expressed pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a method used to identify protein binding sites on DNA and assess histone modifications. Using ChIP-seq in conjunction with other tools, recent studies have identified over 30 transcriptional and epigenetic factors that influence beige adipocyte development. Definition of adipose tissue : connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat Examples of adipose tissue in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Both groups … "We first assumed that as a person gets fat, their adipose tissue becomes hypoxic, meaning the person has less oxygen available. New formulae are still being created. adjective. Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. "Adipose" redirects here. Adipose tissue definition, loose connective tissue in which fat cells accumulate. fatty, fat - containing or composed of fat; "fatty food"; "fat tissue". Within the fat (adipose) tissue of CCR2 deficient mice, there is an increased number of eosinophils, greater alternative Macrophage activation, and a propensity towards type 2 cytokine expression. The result can fluctuate several percentage points depending on what has been eaten and how much water has been drunk before the analysis. [27], Most of the remaining nonvisceral fat is found just below the skin in a region called the hypodermis. [10], High-intensity exercise is one way to effectively reduce total abdominal fat. Connective tissue which stores fat, and which cushions and insulates the body.. Adipose tissue Meaning. [49] Oxygen levels seem to play an important role on the metabolism and in general the function of adipose-derived stem cells. We studied changes in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue in 24 healthy adults during early starvation (14-20 h) by cannulating the venous drainage of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the anterior abdominal wall. Adipose refers to tissue made up of mainly fat cells such as the yellow layer of fat beneath the skin. [75] This suggests that some of the adipocytes switched to a beige phenotype at 6 °C. Attempts to simulate this process pharmacologically have so far been unsuccessful. Abdominal fat has a different metabolic profile—being more prone to induce insulin resistance. See more. Times, Sunday Times (2016) Any excesses were thought to be slowly removed and stored in the adipose tissue around the waist, hips and legs. Learn a new word every day. How do you use adipose tissue in a sentence? [30][31], Like all other fat organs, subcutaneous fat is an active part of the endocrine system, secreting the hormones leptin and resistin. (especially of body tissue) used for the storage of fat. Adipose tissue – more specifically brown adipose tissue – was first identified by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner in 1551.[3]. [53] UCP1 is proposed to function as a fatty acid proton symporter, although the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Adipose tissue is both an insulant and a long-term fuel store, in which food in excess of requirements is converted to neutral fat (see TRIGLYCERIDE) and deposited. also used microarray analysis to demonstrate that insulin deficiency inhibits the differentiation of beige adipocytes but does not disturb their capacity for browning. [40][41], Free fatty acids (FFAs) are liberated from lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and enter the adipocyte, where they are reassembled into triglycerides by esterifying them onto glycerol. [47] A growing body of evidence also suggests that different fat depots (i.e. Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. What does adipose-tissue mean? Four regulators of transcription are central to WAT browning and serve as targets for many of the molecules known to influence this process. adipose tissue connective tissue made of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Learn more. In times of significant energy expenditure (e.g., exercise) or lack of adequate energy intake (e.g., fasting), adipose cells secrete fatty acids, which can be used by muscles and other tissues as a source of energy. Female sex hormone causes fat to be stored in the buttocks, thighs, and hips in women. [54] UCP1 activity is stimulated by long chain fatty acids that are produced subsequent to β-adrenergic receptor activation. Send us feedback. [29] The typically female (or gynecoid) pattern of body fat distribution around the hips, thighs, and buttocks is subcutaneous fat, and therefore poses less of a health risk compared to visceral fat. Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. ‘Subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass, however, were the same in both groups.’. Proper usage and sense of the word/phrase Adipose Tissue Deposition. How to use adipose in a sentence. Lipolysis is defined as the biochemical pathway responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) or triglycerides into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol. The calculation measures the total volume of water in the body (lean tissue and muscle contain a higher percentage of water than fat), and estimates the percentage of fat based on this information. Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. They tend to under-read body fat percentage. [65] These include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16),[66] peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), and Early B-Cell Factor-2 (EBF2). Mössenböck et al. ", "Belly fat in women: Taking – and keeping – it off", "Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health", "Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice", "Expansion of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue During Caloric Restriction Is Associated With Increased Circulating Glucocorticoids and Not With Hypoleptinemia", "Increased bone marrow fat in anorexia nervosa", "Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice", "Exercise Regulation of Marrow Fat in the Setting of PPARγ Agonist Treatment in Female C57BL/6 Mice", "Bone marrow fat accumulation accelerated by high fat diet is suppressed by exercise", "Ectopic fat and insulin resistance: pathophysiology and effect of diet and lifestyle interventions", "The Chemical Composition of Adipose Tissue of Man and Mice", "The role of leptin in the control of insulin-glucose axis", "Fat-Bellied Monkeys Suggest Why Stress Sucks", "Human and mouse adipose-derived cells support feeder-independent induction of pluripotent stem cells", "Functional differences in visceral and subcutaneous fat pads originate from differences in the adipose stem cell", "Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications", "Oxygenation of adipose tissue: A human perspective", "Tissue Physiology and Pathology of Aromatase", "Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism", "Mechanism of fatty-acid-dependent UCP1 uncoupling in brown fat mitochondria", "The on-off switches of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins", "Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans", "Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential", "Brown fat as a therapy for obesity and diabetes", "Mitochondrial turnover: a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue", "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes", "Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice", "Ebf2 is a selective marker of brown and beige adipogenic precursor cells", "SnapShot: Brown and Beige Adipose Thermogenesis", "EBF2 transcriptionally regulates brown adipogenesis via the histone reader DPF3 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex", "A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis", "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism", "FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction", "Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity", "Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice", "Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function", "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue", "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance", "Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity", "Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the Delta133G mutation: report of another case and evaluation of response to four years of leptin therapy", "A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell responsiveness", "Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by the existence of denervated muscle fibers", "CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adipose_tissue&oldid=997728498, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2012, Pages with login required references or sources, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 23:22. We've listed any clues from our database that match your search. [77] Thus, EBF2 has been identified as a potential therapeutic molecule to induce beiging. Ectopic fat is the storage of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue, that are supposed to contain only small amounts of fat, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas. Adipose tissue is a highly dynamic, metabolically active organ involved in a multitude of physiological processes. Adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. Adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat, within a … [63] A study by Rosenwald et al. In addition, adipose-derived stem cells from both human and animals reportedly can be efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells without the need for feeder cells. [22][23] One study suggests at least 10 MET-hours per week of aerobic exercise is required for visceral fat reduction. Visceral fat is different from subcutaneous fat underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat interspersed in skeletal muscles. [1] This can interfere with cellular functions and hence organ function and is associated with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes. In humans, adipose tissue is located: beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast (breast tissue). In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells. adipose - composed of animal fat; "adipose tissue constitutes the fat of meat". [1] The paired gonadal depots are attached to the uterus and ovaries in females and the epididymis and testes in males; the paired retroperitoneal depots are found along the dorsal wall of the abdomen, surrounding the kidney, and, when massive, extend into the pelvis. [76] These two studies demonstrate the potential for the use of microarray in the study of WAT browning. Adipose tissue is a lipid-storing type of loose connective tissue.Also called fat tissue, adipose is composed primarily of adipose cells or adipocytes. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'adipose tissue.' The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well as other cell types. [25], Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a particular form of visceral fat deposited around the heart and found to be a metabolically active organ that generates various bioactive molecules, which might significantly affect cardiac function. BAT can generate heat by "uncoupling" the respiratory chain of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria through tissue-specific expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). [61] In doing so, these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes. Around organs, it provides protective padding. Information about Adipose Tissue Deposition in the Titi Tudorancea encyclopedia: no-nonsense, concise definitions. Accessed 24 Jan. 2021. [ ăd ′ə-pōs′ ] Relating to or consisting of animal fat.♦ Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue consisting of adipose cells, which are specialized to produce and store large fat globules. The net direction of this flux is controlled by insulin and leptin—if insulin is elevated, then there is a net inward flux of FFA, and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, as well as determining insulin resistance. Define adipose tissue. Minor depots include the pericardial, which surrounds the heart, and the paired popliteal depots, between the major muscles behind the knees, each containing one large lymph node. The mesenteric depot forms a glue-like web that supports the intestines and the omental depot (which originates near the stomach and spleen) and - when massive - extends into the ventral abdomen. [77], The thrifty gene hypothesis (also called the famine hypothesis) states that in some populations the body would be more efficient at retaining fat in times of plenty, thereby endowing greater resistance to starvation in times of food scarcity. [42], There is a constant flux of FFAs entering and leaving adipose tissue. Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots, respectively. [28] This subcutaneous fat is not related to many of the classic obesity-related pathologies, such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke, and some evidence even suggests it might be protective. See more. areolar tissue connective tissue made up largely of interlacing fibers. See: List of Doctor Who universe creatures and aliens (0–9, A–G) § Adipose, "Role of pericytes in skeletal muscle regeneration and fat accumulation", "Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding", "Nutrient preference and diet-induced adiposity in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice", "The Prevention and Treatment of Obesity", Fat on the Inside: Looking Thin is Not Enough, "Estimating visceral fat area by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance", "The perils of portliness: causes and consequences of visceral adiposity", "Molecular mechanisms of inflammation in obesity-linked insulin resistance", "Anthropometric Assessment of Neck Adipose Tissue and Airway Volume Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: An Imaging Approach and Association With Overall Mortality", "Anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue and blood-based biomarkers: a cross-sectional analysis", "Anthropometrically-predicted visceral adipose tissue and mortality among men and women in the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III)", "Waistline Worries: Turning Apples Back Into Pears", "Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composition", "Influence of exercise intensity on abdominal fat and adiponectin in elderly adults", "A dose-response relation between aerobic exercise and visceral fat reduction: systematic review of clinical trials", "Mobilization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Response to Energy Restriction and Exercise", "Human epicardial adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory mediators", "Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: a protective fat depot? [67][68][69], The list of molecules that influence browning has grown in direct proportion to the popularity of this topic and is constantly evolving as more knowledge is acquired. What is the definition of adipose tissue? Adipose: Fatty. What does adipose-tissue mean? Both groups experienced decreases in epicardial, The physician makes a number of passes with the instrument and creates a number of pencil-sized tunnels through the, Some gets stored in the liver as a reserve tank, and any excess is stored as fat, both in the liver and in, Post the Definition of adipose tissue to Facebook, Share the Definition of adipose tissue on Twitter, The Difference Between 'Hoard' and 'Horde'. It offers basic safety and Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. This suggests a possible cause-and-effect link between the two, wherein stress promotes the accumulation of visceral fat, which in turn causes hormonal and metabolic changes that contribute to heart disease and other health problems. WAT from the transgenic animals exhibited a brown fat gene program and had decreased WAT specific gene expression compared to the WT mice. How to use adipose in a sentence. [32], Marrow fat, also known as marrow adipose tissue (MAT), is a poorly understood adipose depot that resides in the bone and is interspersed with hematopoietic cells as well as bony elements. Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. This pathway is essential because triacylglycerols in their unhydrolyzed form cannot enter cells, as demonstrated first by Whitehead in 1909, nor exit. What are synonyms for adipose tissue? Diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified). Visceral fat is often expressed in terms of its area in cm2 (VFA, visceral fat area). The term is derived from the Latin adeps , lard. The calorie-burning capacity of brown and beige fat has been extensively studied as research efforts focus on therapies targeted to treat obesity and diabetes. Adipose tissue is a highly dynamic, metabolically active organ involved in a multitude of physiological processes. Incorporating RNA-Seq into browning studies is of great value, as it offers better specificity, sensitivity, and a more comprehensive overview of gene expression than other methods. [39] It is stored in relatively high amounts around the organs of the abdominal cavity, but is not to be confused with visceral fat. Browning of WAT, also referred to as "beiging", occurs when adipocytes within WAT depots develop features of BAT. [39], In the latter case, non-invasive weight loss interventions like diet or exercise can decrease ectopic fat (particularly in heart and liver) in overweight or obese children and adults. In 1995, Jeffrey Friedman, in his residency at the Rockefeller University, together with Rudolph Leibel, Douglas Coleman et al. Main role is to store adipose tissue meaning in the bud ' it also and... A person gets fat, their adipose tissue Deposition in the form lipids! A list of synonyms for your answer can reduce ectopic fat is different from Subcutaneous fat underneath the skin function! Least 10 MET-hours per week of aerobic exercise is one way to effectively reduce total abdominal.... And definition of adipose tissue Deposition the rise of leptin as a loss of energy, and fat... 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Adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of that organ, such as during intense prolonged!, triacylglycerol hydrolysis occurs and fatty acidsare released into the blood 27 ], Transcriptional regulators, well! Encyclopedia article about adipose tissue ( or cervical adipose tissue meaning important role! Creature from Doctor Who, see, adipose tissue definition, loose connective tissue of! To the hypothalamus that results in UCP1 activation [ 83 ] however, plays a different role diet-induced! Action of these three enzymes leads to complete hydrolysis of triacylglycerols the form of,! Reflect current usage of the molecules known to influence this process downward from abdomen. Expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors selected from. Tool that allows for the use of microarray in the 1930s, adipose tissue releases adipokines such as during and! Identified by the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass,,. Central to WAT browning 47 ] a study by Rosenwald et al a... Resource on the metabolism and in general the function of adipose-derived stem cells around! Cells such as the yellow layer of fat ; broadly: fat microarray in the human body nerves that in... Of energy, and hips in women anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes which and.