The influence of culture on health is vast. More than half of physicians believe that religion and spirituality have a significant influence on patients' health, according to a recent report. Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. & Ellison, C.G. Negative stereotypes associated with mental illnesses can lead to discrimination towards those with these illnesses through a process of stigmatization (Link & Phelan, 2001). Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 365-380. The Influence of Religious Tradition and Political Location on the Personal Generosity of Americans Toward the Poor," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. & Blazer, D.G. , Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 263-283. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 866-882. Depressive symptoms and other psychosocial factors as predictors of stroke in the elderly. Koenig, H.G., George, L.K., Hays, J.C., Larson, D.B., Cohen, H.J. Seeman, T. E., Fagan-Dubin, L. & Seeman, M. (2003). In scientific discourse it is only recently that religion has received any special attention. Regular religious practice lessens depression, promotes self-esteem, and builds familial and marital happiness. Oman, D. & Thorensen, C.E. Koenig, H.G., Cohen, H.J., George, L.K., Hays, J.C., Larson, D.B. The relationship between religion and health has been a subject of interest in the past and in the latest years becoming increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Although interventions may be continuously designed to combat this problem, IPV must first be understood... Conceptualizing Spirituality and Religion and Methodological Considerations. 193-202. Method: Using data from the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study, we performed multiple linear regression analysis on 584 caregivers. About The Journal | Submissions Certainly, the religious prohibition on condom use resulted in many people acquiring AIDS. Scheider, R.H., Staggers, F., Alexander, C.N., Sheppard, W., Rainforth, M., Kondwani, K., et al. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 2803-2810. The second interpretation, the ‘psychobiological’ one, considers that spirituality/religion influence health through psychoneuroimmunological or psychoneuroendocrinological pathways beyond the benefits that religion has through health behaviors and social support. Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is a leading expert in the psychology of religion and spirituality. Koenig, H.G., Cohen, H.J., George, L.K., Hays, J.C., Larson, D.B. The Ironson-Woods spirituality/religiousness index is associated with long survival, health behaviors, less distress, and low cortisol in people with HIV/AIDS. This kind of definition allows for further distinctions, such as the one between unspiritual religiousness (e.g., observing some practices for the social benefits), or unreligious spirituality (e.g., mystical experiences of individuals without a religious context). Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.01 (2011). Sarri, K.O., Tzanakis, N.E., Linardakis, M.K., Mamalakis, G. D. & Kafatos, A.D. (2003). Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: A 2-year longitudinal study. In this issue of AJPH, the article by Blevins et al. Among other relationships, they both looked at the relationship between religion (specifically religious services attendance) and cardiovascular mortality, and showed that frequent religious services attendance lowered the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Influence of Religion on Later Burden and Health of New Black and White Caregivers Carla R. A. Fider, Jerry W. Lee, Peter C. Gleason, and Patricia Jones Journal of Applied Gerontology 2017 38 : 9 , 1282-1303 In this blog, Dr Sima Barmania reflects on her research, published in BMC Public Health, which examines the relationship between public health policy and faith in Malaysia. Religion and Health: Influence of Religion on Longevity: Rop Kipsigei Naaman: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. The relationship between religion and health has been a subject of interest in the past and in the latest years becoming increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Hormones and Behavior, 10, 54-60. New research from Oregon State University explores the impact of religion and spirituality on human health. Religiosity is associated with affective and immune status in symnptomatic HIV-infected gay men. Physiology and Behavior, 64, 311-315. The link between religion, spirituality and maternal and child Health Evidence exists to show that, ethnicity and religion are often considered as markers of cultural background and thought to influence beliefs, norms and values in relation to women’s childbearing and place of delivery Koenig GK, 2012, and Gyimah et al., 2006). Religion, disability, depression and the timing of death. American psychologist, 58, 36-52. Physiology and Behavior, 50, 543-548. Effects of Ramadan fasting on lipid peroxidation, serum lipoproteins, and fasting blood sugar. This developing identification has created a void as people move away from the traditional, established symbols and maps of meaning. In this issue of AJPH, the article by Blevins et al. (2003). However, this study had the same methodological problem: it does not use randomization. 435-443. & Spiegel, D. (2001). Sima Barmania 25 Aug 2016 Finally, a group of male college students that followed a Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation program showed a reduction in systolic and diastolic pressure, compared to a control group of male college students that did not follow the program (Sudsuang et al. (1992). Is Medical Debt a Social Determinant of Health? © 2021 Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse LLC. Yet, it is associated with poor mental and behavioral health as well as lower wellbeing and negative relational strategies. Results: Mental health, but not physical health, was predicted by caregiver burden. At other times, this connection may be less helpful—or even harmful—if it creates stress or acts as a barrier to treatment. Religion is no panacea when it comes to improving health. Chapters in Part I describe religious practices of ordinary people in the world’s faith traditions that provide daily, weekly, annual, and life course streams of influence on the body, mind, and spirit. Without spirituality does critical health psychology risk fostering cultural iatrogenesis?. (2000). Religion is not only “researchable,” but it is also of essential interest to clinicians, doctors, patients and health psychologists. Psychological investment in religion and its associations with longevity in the Terman sample. (eds) Religion and Sexual Health. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. All three conditions share some common features, one of the most observed... Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue that results in social, psychological, emotional, and physical consequences. From the studies cited here, some evidence for the existence of a relationship between meditation and health exists. Religion and culture have a significant influence on a woman’s health especially in reproductive health around the world. Psychological investment in religion and its associations with longevity in the Terman sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 523-530. Infante, J.R., Peran, F., Martinez, M., Roldan, A., Poyatos, R. Ruiz, C., Garrido, S. & Garrido, F. (1998). Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 523-530. American Journal of Epidemiology, 136, 884-894. Oman, D. & Reed, D. (1998). A second study measured the blood pressure and body mass index on women of Judeo-Christian faith, who were also asked to answer questionnaires about physical activity, smoking, diet, alcohol consumption and various dimensions of religiosity (Hixon, Gruchow & Morgan, 1998). Religion has the benefit of empowering the individual through connecting him/her to a community, and to a superior force, that might in turn give psychological stability (Oman & Thorensen, 2003). Despite being often overlooked within the discipline of International Relations (Lee, 2004: 29; Bambra et al., 2005: 187), the governance of health has become central to international politics. Most of the studies usually use White or Asian, male, college students as participants. Conversely, religion is shaped by its social context in ways that affect its social role. (2002). Religiosity is associated with affective and immune status in symnptomatic HIV-infected gay men. Colantonio, A., Kasl, S.V. These differences were found to be attributable to differences in diet (Friedlander et al., 1985), and this pattern is probably much clearer in the other two studies (Asgary et al., 2000; Sarri, Tzanakis, Linardakis, Mamalakis & Kafatos, 2003). Influence of religion, religiosity and spirituality on positive mental health of young people Nima. Save Citation »  (Works with EndNote, ProCite, & Reference Manager), Basu-Zharku, I. O. American Psychologist, 58, 24-35. (2003). How Religion and Spirituality Affect Our Health A look at the research shows that both can help us—in different ways. It affirmed Religion and spirituality have distinct but complementary influences on health, new research from Oregon State University indicates. Moreover, some of the studies presented above have also looked the relationship between meditation and levels of cholesterol (Patel et al., 1985; Schmidt et al., 1997). Caregivers who viewed God as loving and not controlling and felt a sense of community with their church family had less burden. Powell, L.H., Shahabi, L. & Thorensen, C.E. The religiosity of the participants was measured through considering not only mosque attendance but also praying five times a day, giving alms, extra praying, daily reading and listening to readings of the Qur’an, fasting and going on pilgrimage to Mecca. & Spiegel, D. (2001). It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcom … Religion can also be conceptualized as religiousness, as an individual phenomenon, characterized by the adherence of an individual to specific beliefs and practices (Miller & Thorensen, 2003). The Influence of Religion on Health. Despite ample reason to believe that faith is associated with improved health, very little is still known about the effect religion has on the body. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1469-1475. However, because this resource is not investigated and used at its full capacity, health psychology risks promoting a cultural iatrogenesis (healer-induced disability to cope with illness) (Oman & Thorensen, 2003). It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. A third study looked at the ambulatory blood pressure in a sample of both men and women, Blacks and Whites, over the time of a workday (during sleep and wake) (Steffen, Hinderliter, Blumenthal & Sherwood, 2001). Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 3(01). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. The most documented relationship is the influence of meditation on blood pressure (Patel et al., 1985; Sudsuang, Chentanez & Veluvan, 1991; Schneider et al., 1995; Schmidt, Wijga, Von Zur Muhlen, Brabant & Wagner, 1997). Whether God created man or man invented gods, religious beliefs have for centuries impacted on … The Breast Cancer Journal, 7, 345-353. Religion and spirituality will continue to influence health care on both patient and community levels. The influence of religion on public health policy. First let’s look at what it says about how beliefs can influence a person’s behavior and health outcomes, then at how the health system in the United States integrates faith into the care process. & Cohen, R.D (2002). Demography, 36, 273-285. Research on this topic provides evidence for the protective role of religion against cardiovascular disease (Powell, Shahabi & Thorensen, 2003). The results showed that triglyceride, cholesterol and malondialdehyde (one product of lipid peroxidation) levels decreased significantly during Ramadan. (2002). (1997). If we work in different cultures and want to achieve One Health outcomes, we absolutely need to adopt the view that there are many legitimate perspectives. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 3(01). https Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the transcendental meditation program. According to recent statistics published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011, Hispanics in the United States tend to outlive non-Hispanic whites by almost three years. Colantonio, Kasl and Osfeld (1992) analyzed the influence of different psychosocial factors (religiousness, marital status, social support, social networks and depression) as predictors of stroke incidence through a longitudinal study on elderly people. Finally, the ‘psychobehavioral’ interpretation, stresses that religion can influence health through various psychological conditions such as character, will-power, focused attention or increased motivation beyond pathways such as social support (Oman & Thorensen, 2002). (1995). & Sherwood, A. In addition, there seem to be no other studies that look at this association and thus more research is needed in this area. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 233-250. (2001). Religion’s role in health needs to be examined in a broad context, especially the ways in which culture influences religion’s expression of the spiritual. This would help professionals release the old stereotypes and prejudices that they have about this topic. Religion is a subject that we encounter daily, either because we follow a specific faith and the rules established by it, or because we meet people who proclaim their faith unabashed, or because we know it is a taboo subject in social conversations. Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures, Chinese Women and Christianity in the Late Imperial Era, Gender-Specific Language of the Major Prophets in The Hebrew Bible: The Case of the First and Second Isaiah, Byzantine and Russian Influences in Andrei Rublev's Art, Solving Health Issues in Ethiopia with Religion. Schneider, R.H., Nidich, S.I., Salerno, J.W., Sharma, H.M., Robinson, C.E., Nidich, R.J. & Alexander, C.N. whether religion should be promoted as a Ztool [ for promoting health (as may be the case with, for example, exercise or diet). Spiritual expression and immune status in women with metastatic breast cancer: An explanatory study. In particular they should consider differences in disease prevalence, possible cultural influences on health, access to and uptake of health … Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the transcendental meditation program. Social Science. "The Influence of Religion on Health." Another study that looked at this relationship evaluated a large, representative sample of Muslims (both Sunni and Shiite) from Kuwait (Al-Kandari, 2003). After controlling for demographic, disease status, and treatment variable, women who rated spiritual expression as more important had greater numbers of circulating white blood cells and total lymphocite counts (both helper and cytotoxic T-cell counts included). Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other biological parameters of immune function in older adults. Many religiously affiliated organizations or faith based organizations are directly involved in health care delivery. The first approach requires that a new factor (in this case spirituality/religion) significantly improves predicting a health outcome, beyond other recognized factors (e.g., family history, gender, socioeconomic status, age, or stress). Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Hypertension, 26, 820-827. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 24, 42-49. The Rise of Global Health: How Did Health Become a Matter of Global Concern? Kutner, N.G., Lin, L.S., Fielding, B., Brogan, D. & Hall, W.D. Religion and spirituality are both rooted in trying to understand the meaning of life and, in some cases, how a relationship with a higher power may influence that meaning. Religious involvement and U.S. adult mortality. Another study compared a group of individuals from a residential area in Sweden participated in a three-month yoga and meditation training program with a group of individuals from a residential area in Germany that did not participate in the program (Schmidt et al., 1997). The relationship between religion and health has been of longstanding interest in the health, social, and behavioral sciences, spanning a period of >100 years (117, 121, 122, 123).Despite recognized methodological and analytical issues (), overall the findings indicate a consistent and salutary influence of religious factors on individual and population health (110, 122). While in other cultures, typically collectivist, these negative outcomes aren’t seen.... Research has shown that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares similar genetic roots with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pargament, I., Koenig, H.G., Tarakeshwar, N. & Hahn, J. Yet, it is associated with poor mental and behavioral health as well as lower wellbeing and negative relational strategies. McCullough, M.E., Hoyt, W.T., Larson, D.B., Koenig, H.G. Religion and spirituality are both rooted in trying to understand the meaning of life and, in some cases, how a relationship with a higher power may influence that meaning. For the long-term practitioners, however, the cortisol levels deceased significantly and remained like that after the sessions of meditation. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 365-380. (1978). Culture, spirituality and religion: migrant health guide Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients for healthcare practitioners. A second study involving a randomized design looked at the influence of transcendental meditation and progressive muscle relaxation on blood pressure in a sample of older African American adults (Schneider et al., 1995). Analyses controlling for demographics showed that higher levels of religious coping (belief and faith in God, praying) were correlated with lower ambulatory blood pressure during both sleep and wake, but this relationship hold only for African Americans. Religious attendance and cause of death over 31 years. One other study analyzed levels of cortisol, β-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in two groups: one of practitioners of transcendental meditation and another of non-practitioners (Infante et al., 1998). People are still... Shame is an adaptive emotion. (2001). &Williams, D.R. The most pervasive associations are between religious practices and lower blood pressure, better lipid profiles, better immune function, and lower all-cause mortality (Seeman et al.). Oman, D., Kurata, J.H., Strawbridge, W.J. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 32, 69-89. ‘Does religion cause health? In addition, the existing and growing literature on the benefits of religion/spirituality should be more thoroughly explored and research on the theme should be encouraged. That has always been so, those interpretations that lead to extreme behaviors in the name of religion. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. However, a major problem in the study of the relationship between spirituality/religion and health is that randomization is very hard to do, sometimes even impossible. Steffen, P.R., Hinderliter, A.L., Blumenthal, J.A. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 32, 69-89. & Martin, L.R. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 165-176. Other research has looked at Judeo/Christian/Muslim religious practices (in particular, synagogue/church/mosque attendance and/or prayer) and health.Continued on Next Page ». This, in turn, emphasizes the fact that there are multiple interpretations of how spirituality/religion influences health and a number of pathways through which this happens. & Kling, D.W. (1999). Hummer, R.A., Rogers, R.G., Nam, C.B. 19 Many religions discourage members from excessive alcohol and drug use, for example. American psychologist, 58, 36-52. And, if it does not, it might be that indeed the predictor does not contribute to the health outcome or it might be that the covariance fallacy is responsible for the result (which is the confusion of correlation with causation). Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 165-176. match them for age, gender, SES etc.). is linked to their cultural beliefs and background. Musik, M.A., House, J.S. Health Psychology, 19, 211-222. A longitudinal study, analyzing the data over a period of years and comparing individuals who were fasting during those years with individuals who did not fast would be a more telling study. Springer, Dordrecht. Then when the spirituality/religion predictor is entered, it might show a significant increase in the proportion of variance. A third interpretation, the ‘superempirical’ or ‘psi’ interpretation, considers that spirituality/religion influence health through superempirical pathways, beyond health behaviors and psychological states. Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines. Many of these studies have focused on Judeo-Christian practices, specifically synagogue/church attendance and/or prayer (Seeman et al., 2003), and only few studies have looked into Islamic practices. Terms of Use :: Privacy Policy :: Contact. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=367, Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. & Blazer, D.G. Continued survival of elder hemodialysis patients: Investigation of psychosocial predictors. & Morgan, D.W. (1998). (1997). Religion and Sexual Health pp 155-165 | Cite as. Learn more | Blog | Submit. Sephton, S.E., Koopman, C., Schaal, M., Thorensen, C.E. & Thorensen, C.E. Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other biological parameters of immune function in older adults. (2004). Religion and Mental Health . Only men were included in the study. © 2021 Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse LLC. This empowering happens through consciousness of religious principles, such as the sanctity of human life, shared identity, meaningful roles in the community and society at large, a variety of spiritual, social and economic support, social networks, and even leadership for social change and protection in time of conflicts. The relationship between religion and health has been of longstanding interest in the health, social, and behavioral sciences, spanning a period of >100 years 1-4.Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences 5. In a randomized, longitudinal study, the influence of meditation/relaxation techniques on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (participants were judged as being at high risk for it if they had two or three of the following risk factors: smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol) was investigated (Patel et al., 1985). By emphasizing the conceptualizing of spirituality/religion and by considering the inherent methodological issues of research on spirituality/religion and health, the stage is set for focusing on the research as such. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 38-41. Note that Weber & Pargament (2014) express that the influence of religion on mental health is not only positive but can also be negative: "Studies indicate that religion and spirituality can promote mental health through positive religious coping, community and support, and positive beliefs. Religion is considered too personal a subject. In general, all four studies point to the fact that these differences are related to differences in diet, although this diet is religiously based.Continued on Next Page ». 2011. Thus, whereas spirituality is understood at the level of the individual, religion is more of a social phenomenon, and as such is included in the more overarching concept of spirituality. & Ostfeld, A.M. (1992). & Blazer, D.G. 2011. The American Journal of Sociology, 97, 1052-1079. Hypertension, 26, 820-827. Many people use the terms “religious” and “spiritual” interchangeably, but studies show that they affect our wellness in markedly different ways. Hundreds of studies have examined how religious beliefs mold an individual’s sociology and psychology. It affects perceptions of health, illness and death, beliefs about causes of disease, approaches to health promotion, how illness and pain are experienced and expressed, where patients seek help, and the types of treatment patients prefer. McCullough, M.E., Hoyt, W.T., Larson, D.B., Koenig, H.G. Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. Immune function was also investigated, in relationship with religious practices. Many of these studies look into the relationship between meditation and various physiological measures. Because spirituality/religion influence health through these pathways, they act in an indirect way on health (Oman & Thorensen, 2002). 37, No. One of the first sociologists to study religion was Emile Durkheim, who found that distinctions between ideas about the sacred and profane were connected to notions of health and illness. by Pamela Milam. The relation between religiosity, selected health behaviors, and blood pressure among adult females. Another study that also looked at cortisol levels in a control group of young adults, this same group after 3-4 months of practicing transcendental meditation, and another group, of long-time (3-5 years) practitioners of transcendental meditation (Jevning, Wilson & Davidson, 1978). Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 263-283. Oman, D. & Thorensen, C.E. "The Influence of Religion on Health." This ability to empower could be used by health psychologists in medical settings (and not only) to help those who struggle with a disease or to promote a healthier lifestyle. This paper proposes a new model, which incorporates religious beliefs into a system of cognition (illusions and meaning for events) and psychoneuroimmunologic functioning. Sarri, K.O., Tzanakis, N.E., Linardakis, M.K., Mamalakis, G. D. & Kafatos, A.D. (2003). Miller, W.R. & Thorensen, C.E. Effects of Ramadan fasting on lipid peroxidation, serum lipoproteins, and fasting blood sugar. & Davidson, J.M. A majority of physicians (56 percent) think that religion and spirituality has much or very much influence on health and 54 percent believe that at times a supernatural being intervenes. BMC Public Health, 3. Woods, T.E., Antoni, M.H., Ironson, G.H. Two other studies use large, representative samples of American adults (coming from a Judeo-Christian background), followed for a long period of time (Hummer, Rogers, Nam & Ellison, 1999; Oman, Kurata, Strawbridge & Cohen, 2002). Religion’s influence on patient care is expressed in prayer requests, in clinician-chaplain collaborations, and through health care organizations’ religious accommodations for patients and staff. Religion provides the principles that guide good health and well-being, including social support, existential meaning, a sense of purpose, a coherent belief system, guide to a healthy lifestyle and a clear moral code. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Again, religion was evaluated through the frequency of religious services attendance and the importance of spiritual expression in their lives. American Psychologist, 58, 53-63. In healthcare literature religion and spirituality are most of the time used interchangeably, although they have quite different meanings (Miller & Thorensen, 2003). Religion, disability, depression and the timing of death. Patel, C., Marmot, M.G., Terry, D.J., Carruthers, M., Hunt, B. In a world dominated by a culture of consumption, religion offers a venue for individuals to commit to something beyond themselves, in addition to empowering the community, overall. Sephton, S.E., Koopman, C., Schaal, M., Thorensen, C.E. (1998).

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