Australopithecus has subdivision Paranthropus robustus (česky též Australopiték robustní) je druh vyhynulého hominida, žijící ve starším pleistocénu, před 2 - 1,5 miliony let v jižní Africe, na území dnešní Jihoafrické republiky.Patří k zástupcům robustních australopitéků, řazených často do samostatného rodu Paranthropus.Žil již současně se zástupci rodu Homo (Homo habilis, Homo erectus 149-172 Most of the species of Paranthropus had a brain which was 40% in size of that of a modern man. Human-like hip joint loading in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 2.2–1.5 million years ago), possessing a small brain, small incisors and canines, and large postcanine dentition, considered a side branch of the human phylogenetic tree. Olduvai (Oldupai) Gorge is considered the cradle (womb) of humankind. Zinj was recovered in assocation with: Paranthropus boisei definition, an extinct species of very rugged, large-toothed bipedal hominin, originally named Zinjanthropus boisei and later Australopithecus boisei, that lived in eastern Africa about 1–2 million years ago. Paranthropus boisei was a long-lived species of archaic hominin that first evolved in East Africa about 2.3 million years ago.. Grine (Ed. P. robustus differs from australopith with a larger absolute brain size (530 cc), a pronounced sagittal crest, very large flattened face, a brow ridge separated by a slight sulcus, relatively smaller incisors, large mandible, and very large cheek teeth. It is largely known from skulls and teeth, but there are some new fossil skeleton discoveries that suggest it may have also used its arms for climbing in … Early in the twentieth century (the 1920s–1930s), three important discoveries were made in Southern Africa: the Taung Child – the first known Australopithecus; an adult specimen from Sterkfontein (then named Plesianthropus); and Paranthropusfrom Kromdraai. The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus were bipedal hominids that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominids. Their faces, jaws, and cheek teeth were massive and truly unforgettable. R.L. Paranthropus boisei, arguably the best known of the “robust australopithecines,” (the species included in the genus Paranthropus—Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus, and Paranthropus boisei) is known from East African sites dating between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago. P. robustus differs from australopith with a larger absolute brain size (530 cc), a pronounced sagittal crest, very large flattened face, a brow ridge separated by a slight sulcus, relatively smaller incisors, large mandible, and very large cheek teeth. Paranthropus is a genus of extinct hominins. Specifically, P. boisei fossils have been found at sites in Tanzania (Olduvai … Usage notes . Not logged in It lived in Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene epoch from about 2.3 [discovered in Omo in Ethiopia] until about 1.2 million years ago. Sep 3, 2019 - Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) is an early hominin, originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. In the first course that I took in physical anthropology, I was most fascinated by the Paranthropus boisei face from Olduvai Gorge (see Figures 18.1 and 18.5) and the Natron/Peninj mandible from the Peninj site near Lake Natron. Not affiliated ... -bipedal-short-bowl-shaped-medial-platform-short-arched-hallux-grasp. True. This species has been recovered at other South African localities in association with stone and bone tools. See more ideas about hominid, human evolution, southern africa. The premolars are shaped like molars. True. Swartkrans ape-man. I still remember the first time I saw them, and the species has always been for me one of the more interesting discoveries in paleoanthropology. True, these australopithecines were bipedal and succeed after Australopithecus afarensis and africanus. (2018). Lockwood, C. A., Menter, C. G., Moggi-Cecchi, J., & Keyser, A. W. (2007). 2013). The various species lived 4.4 million to 1.4 million years ago, during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. The type specimen for P. robustus is TM 1517 which was found at Kromdraai and dates to 2 million years ago. P. robustus hand morphology suggests a grip capable of tool use. P. robustus had a tall face with slight prognathism (the face was not completely flat). Typical of Paranthropus, P. robustus exhibits post-canine megadontia with enormous cheek teeth but human-sized incisors and canines. Extended male growth in a fossil hominin species. False "Taung Baby" is a nickname for Australopithecus afarensis. The latter discovery, together with later found similar fossils from Swartkrans, led to the understanding that not all “ape-men” (as they were called) were ancestors of humans, i.e., early on in the evolutionary history of hominins, a branching event occurred, from which two evolutionary lineages arose: one leading to us, humans, the other... Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Part of Springer Nature. Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". The remains of hominins (members of the human lineage) found in it are associated with animals that are thought to be about two million years old and that were adapted… Quadrupedal animals, who go on all fours, very rarely support their weight on one … Human bipedality, or upright walking, caused many changes to the skeleton. There is some really ignorant press that confused Paranthropus robustus as a human ancestor, such as this National Geographic News headline, “Early Human Ancestors May Have Had “Harem” Societies.” This headline is not particularly true. Paranthropus first appeared roughly 2.7 million … Paranthropus robustus is an example of a robust australopithecine; they had very large megadont cheek teeth with thick enamel and focused their chewing in the back of the jaw. [2] The pelvis is similar to " A. afarensis " but the hip joint, including the femoral head and acetabulum are smaller in "Paranthropus". Other articles where Australopithecus robustus is discussed: Kromdraai: …known for its fossils of Paranthropus robustus. The skull had a well-defined sagittal crest on the midline and inflated cheek bones, which likely supported massive temporal musclesimportant in biting. The most obvious features that A. robustus shares with living people are related to locomotion. This is a preview of subscription content, Broom, R. & Robinson, J.T. Paranthropus were robust and descended from gracile australopithecines. A simple comparison of the distal end of the femur, the end nearest the knee, is enough to tell that A. robustus was bipedal like humans. Kromdraai is a limestone cave that has occasionally had openings to the surface. Paranthropus robustus is known from several fossil sites in South Africa and lived from about 2 to 1 million years ago. A large sagittal crest provided a … This genus is actually composed of 3 different hominid species which have helped scientists to link modern humans to our earlier human ancestors. It appears that Australopithicines were bipedal. Robinson, J. T. (1954). Paranthropus boisei or Australopithecus boisei was an early hominin, described as the largest of the Paranthropus genus (robust australopithecines). It is divided broadly to three groups; Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. This genus is sometimes merged into Australopithecus with its species as component species of Australopithecus. (1952). This species lived between 1.8 million and 1.2 million years ago in South Africa. Although postcranial material is scarce, a possible P. aethiopicus calcaneus may exhibit bipedal adaptations. Paranthropus boisei. Even though the name of the species has "robust" in it, they were actually the smallest of the Paranthropus Group. They were bipedal and probably lived 2.7 million years ago. ), Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines, Aldine de Gruyter, New York (1988), pp. The first specimen OH 5 was found by Mary Leaky at Olduvai Gorge in 1959 after 28 years of searching. URI: http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q164509 Definition: organism consuming a variety of foods, usually including both plants and animals show all records Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) was originally discovered at Kromdraai in South Africa in 1938 by the anthropologist Robert Broom. A taxonomic genus within the family Hominidae – a group of extinct bipedal hominids, the robust australopithecines. The genera and species of the, © Springer International Publishing AG 2017, Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.005, Division of Psychology, School of Social and Health Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6, Reference Module Humanities and Social Sciences, Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, Parental Investment and Sexual Selection (Trivers Foundational Theory), Parental Investment Theory (Middle-Level Theory in Evolutionary Psychology). Paranthropus robustus definition, an extinct species of large-toothed bipedal hominin, formerly named Australopithecus robustus, that lived in southern Africa about 1.5–2 million years ago. Since H. Habilis was bipedal and P. robustus had similar bipedal locomotion to modern humans (Wood and Constantino 2007) (Domínguez- Rodrigo et. Because of this inconsistency, it can only be assumed that P. boisei was bipedal. 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