[140] He initiated this with a five-point plan, the first point of which dissolved all existing laws, to be replaced by revolutionary enactments. Although a large percentage of those charged were acquitted, sentences of up to fifteen years in prison and heavy fines were imposed on others. Gaddafi refused, causing the United Nations to impose economic sanctions against Libya which deeply hurt the Libyan economy. [63][69], Some publications were financed by Gaddafi. Scholar Gerard Prunier claims part of his hostility was apparently because Chadian President François Tombalbaye was Christian. Libya's Five-Year Economic and Social Transformation Plan (1976–80), announced in 1975, was programmed to pump US$20 billion into the development of a broad range of economic activities that would continue to provide income after Libya's petroleum reserves had been exhausted. [220] Many who had seen their wealth and property confiscated turned against the administration, and a number of Western-funded opposition groups were founded by exiles. Under President Gaddafi, Libya built friendly relations based on solidarity with other African States and was always ready to help if a ‘brother nation’ was in trouble. With fellow RCC member Bashir Saghir al-Hawaadi, he began plotting a coup against Gaddafi. [365] Gaddafi's son Mutassim, who had also been among the convoy, was similarly captured and found dead several hours later, most probably from an extrajudicial execution. [491][492] Dissidents abroad were labelled "stray dogs"; they were publicly threatened with death and sometimes killed by government hit squads,[493] or returned home by force to face imprisonment or death. Gaddafi was a bit like Hugo Chavez in South America. [79] Seeking to expand the cultivatable acreage in Libya, in September 1969 the government launched a "Green Revolution" to increase agricultural productivity so that Libya could rely less on imported food. Most internal opposition came from Islamic fundamentalists, who were inspired by the events of the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Inspiration for the unrest is attributed to the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, connecting it with the wider Arab Spring. Born near Sirte, Italian Libya, to a poor Bedouin family, Gaddafi became an Arab nationalist while at school in Sabha, later enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi. He hoped that the councils would mobilize the people behind the RCC, erode the power of the traditional leaders and the bureaucracy, and allow for a new legal system chosen by the people. Following the formation of the Libyan Arab Republic, Gaddafi and his associates insisted that their government would not rest on individual leadership, but rather on collegial decision making. [182] A strong relationship was also established between Gaddafi's Libya and Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's Pakistani government, with the two countries exchanging nuclear research and military assistance; this relationship ended after Bhutto was deposed by Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1977. [471] Supporters have also applauded achievements in medical care, praising the universal free healthcare provided under the Gaddafist administration, with diseases like cholera and typhoid being contained and life expectancy raised. [130] Calling on the Arab states to wage "continuous war" against Israel, in 1970 he initiated a Jihad Fund to finance anti-Israeli militants. [465] The journalist Ruth First described his speeches as being "an inexhaustible flow; didactic, at times incoherent; peppered with snatches of half-formed opinions; admonitions; confidences; some sound common sense, and as much prejudice". He suggested that Tunisia's people would be satisfied if Ben Ali introduced a Jamahiriyah system there. [413] His interpretation of Islam was nevertheless idiosyncratic,[412] and he clashed with conservative Libyan clerics. The new government categorically rejected communism – in large part because it was atheist – and officially espoused an Arab interpretation of socialism that integrated Islamic principles with social, economic, and political reform. [61] They purged monarchists and members of Idris' Senussi clan from Libya's political world and armed forces; Gaddafi believed this elite were opposed to the will of the Libyan people and had to be expunged. [48], In 1972, Gaddafi tried to buy a nuclear bomb from the People's Republic of China. Labour Party politician Bill Hartley, the secretary of Libya-Australia friendship society, was long-term supporter of Gaddafi and Saddam Hussein. The NTC initially claimed he died from injuries sustained in a firefight when loyalist forces attempted to free him, although a graphic video of his last moments show rebel fighters beating him and one of them sodomizing him with a bayonet bef Violent counter demonstrations took place and many students were imprisoned. [391] Gaddafi also had international ambitions, wanting to export his revolutionary ideas throughout the world. [458] According to Hinnebusch, the foundations of Gaddafi's "personal charismatic authority" in Libya stemmed from the blessing he had received from Nasser coupled with "nationalist achievements" such as the expulsion of foreign military bases, the extraction of higher prices for Libyan oil, and his vocal support for the Palestinian and other anti-imperialist causes. [281] The country suffered an estimated US$900 million financial loss as a result. We have sent them to the Irish revolutionaries so that the British will pay the price for their past deeds". [66] In February 1973, he resigned again, once more returning the following month. [395], Along with Arab nationalism, anti-imperialism was also a defining feature of Gaddafi's regime during its early years. [71][72][73] His 2009 forum for African kings was canceled by the Ugandan hosts, who believed that traditional rulers discussing politics would lead to instability. The rule of the Turks and Italians and the "reactionary" government just overthrown were characterized as belonging to "dark ages", from which the Libyan people were called to move forward as "free brothers" to a new age of prosperity, equality, and honor. "[218], The Jamahiriya's radical direction earned the government many enemies. [394] He nevertheless had minimal success in exporting the ideology outside of Libya. 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